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Flag of Indonesia

Names: Sang Saka Merah-Putih, Bendera Merah-Putih or Merah-Putih
Use: National flag and ensign
Proportion: 2:3
Adopted: Majapahit Empire (13th Century)
17 August 1945 (Original)
17 August 1950 (Official)
Design: A horizontal bicolour of red and white

Variant flag of Indonesia

Name: Ular-Ular Perang or Lencana Perang
Use: Naval jack
Proportion: 2:3
Design: Nine horizontal stripes of alternating red and white
The Flag of Indonesia is a simple bicolour with two equal horizontal bands, red (top) and white (bottom) with an overall ratio of 2:3. It was introduced and hoisted in public at the Indonesian Declaration of Independence on 17 August 1945 in Pegangsaan Timur street in Jakarta, and again when the Dutch formally transferred sovereignty on 27 December 1949. The design of the flag has remained unchanged since.

The flag of Indonesia is graphically identical to the Flag of Monaco, with a slight difference only in the ratio of its dimensions. The Flag of Poland has similar dimensions but has the colors reversed: white on top and red on the bottom.

The Naval Jack of Indonesia is reserved for sole use by the Indonesian Navy. It flies from the mast of every active Indonesian war ship. The design of the jack is described as nine alternating stripes of red and white. It is nicknamed Ular-ular Perang (War Pennant or literally "War Snakes"), probably due to the stripes' design. The naval jack dates to the age of Majapahit Empire. This empire, renowned for its great maritime strength, flew similar jacks on its vessels.


The flag's colours are derived from the banner of the 13th century Majapahit Empire. However, it has been suggested that the red and white symbolism can trace its origin to the older common Austronesian mythology of the duality of Mother Earth (red) and Father Sky (white). This is why these colours appear in so many flags throughout Austronesia, from Tahiti to Madagascar. The earliest records of the red and white panji or pataka (a long flag on a curved bamboo pole) can be found in the Pararaton chronicle; according to this source, the Jayakatwang troops from Gelang-Gelang hoisted the red and white banner during their invasion of Singhasari in the early 12th century. This suggests that even before the Majapahit era, the red and white colours were already revered and used as the kingdom's banner in the Kediri era (1042-c.1222).

Red and white textile colouring was available in ancient Indonesia. White is the natural colour of woven cotton fabrics, while red is one of the earliest natural dyes, acquired either from teak leaves, the flowers of Averrhoa bilimbi, or the skin of mangosteen fruits.

It was not only the Javanese kingdoms that used red and white. The battle flag of King Sisingamangaraja IX of Batak lands bore an image of white twin swords called piso gaja dompak against a red background. During the Aceh War of 1873-1904, Aceh warriors used a battle flag with the image of a sword, star and crescent, sun, and some Quranic script in white on a red background. The red and white flag of the Buginese Bone kingdom in South Sulawesi is called Woromporang. The Balinese Badung (Puri Pamecutan) royal banner is red, white, and black, probably of Majapahit origin. During the Java War (1825–1830) Prince Diponegoro also used a red and white banner.

In the early 20th century these colours were revived by students and then nationalists, as an expression of nationalism against the Dutch. The modern red and white flag which was first flown in Java in 1928, was prohibited under Dutch rule. Upon Indonesia's declaration of independence on 17 August 1945 it was adopted as the national flag, and has been in use ever since. After Indonesia's independence was recognized, Monaco, which had a similar flag, filed a complaint which was largely ignored.

Republic of Indonesia

Republik Indonesia (Indonesian)
Flag of Indonesia
National emblem
Motto: Bhinneka Tunggal Ika (Kawi)
(English: "Unity in Diversity")
National ideology: Pancasila
Anthem: "Indonesia Raya"
(English: "Great Indonesia")
Area controlled by Indonesia shown in green
Area controlled by Indonesia shown in green
and largest city
6°10.5′S 106°49.7′E / 6.1750°S 106.8283°E / -6.1750; 106.8283
Official language
and national language
Regional languages
Over 700 languages
Ethnic groups
Over 300 ethnic groups
  • 87.2% Islam
  • 9.9% Christianity
  • —7.0% Protestantism
  • —2.9% Roman Catholicism
  • 1.7% Hinduism
  • 0.7% Buddhism
  • 0.2% Confucianism
    and others
Demonym(s) Indonesian
Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic
• President
Joko Widodo
• Vice President
Jusuf Kalla
• DPR Speaker
Bambang Soesatyo
• Chief Justice
Muhammad Hatta Ali
Legislature People's Consultative Assembly (MPR)
• Upper house
Regional Representative Council (DPD)
• Lower house
People's Representative Council (DPR)
• Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms
2nd century
• Islamic sultanates
13th century
• Dutch East India Company
20 March 1602
• Dutch East Indies
1 January 1800
• Japanese occupation
9 March 1942
• Independence proclaimed
17 August 1945
• Recognition and federation
27 December 1949
• Unitary republic
17 August 1950
• Land
1,904,569 km2 (735,358 sq mi) (14th)
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
• 2010 census
237,641,326 (4th)
• Density
138/km2 (357.4/sq mi) (88th)
GDP (PPP) 2018 estimate
• Total
$3.495 trillion (7th)
• Per capita
$13,176 (96th)
GDP (nominal) 2018 estimate
• Total
$1.005 trillion (16th)
• Per capita
$3,788 (114th)
Gini (2017) Negative increase 39.5
HDI (2017) Increase 0.694
medium · 116th
Currency Indonesian rupiah (Rp) (IDR)
Time zone UTC+7 to +9 (various)
Date format DD/MM/YYYY
Driving side left
Calling code +62
ISO 3166 code ID
Internet TLD .id
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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Flag History of Indonesia? | How old is Indonesia Flag Design formation? | How to call Indonesia?
Categories: National symbols of Indonesia,Flags of Indonesia,Red and white flags,National flags, Indonesia,Southeast Asian countries,Countries in Melanesia,Republics,Developing 8 Countries member states,E7 nations,G15 nations,G20 nations,Island countries,Former OPEC member states,Member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations,Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation,Member states of the United Nations

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